The battle is heating up between the hotels, who claim that holiday lets are creating unfair competition, and owners of properties which are rented for tourism, who say their business helps to create wealth and employment in the province.
The life of Cristina Gil López changed completely on 18 July 2014 when she gave birth to her second child, Kevin. Early during the pregnancy she contracted chicken pox, resulting in the boy being born with serious physical issues.
His level of dis
Work to finish Nerja's waste water treatment plant is well under way after the project was restarted on 19 February this year, following a nine-month stoppage.
Drains in the town centre, including Antonio Ferrandis 'Chanquete', Prolongación de Anto
Nerja town hall reopened the car park at Burriana beach last Friday ahead of the summer season. The opening of the car park, which has a total of 240 places, had been subject to considerable delay, according to opposition parties. The council also co
Nerja and Cómpeta town halls are both seeking investors to purchase and take on the management of holiday accommodation which they each own in the Tejeda, Almijara and Alhama mountains.
Cómpeta owns La Casa La Mina, which has been closed since 2014
Nerja's Chíllar river, which has become one of Malaga province's most popular alternatives to crowded beaches during the summer months, still has no management plan or controls in place, despite its increasing popularity which has brought a growing a
Town halls across the Costa del Sol and Malaga province are in limbo over 'plusvalía', the land-value tax they charge to property sellers, while they wait for a change in law to clarify how this tax can be levied in the future.
The uncertainty come
Nerja town hall has published the draft version of a new bylaw on its website which will require residents who have been on the town hall census (Padrón) for more than four years to pay up to 150 euros for a civil wedding.
Currently only couples wh
A 42-year-old mountaineer, who had gone missing from his group, was rescued from the Axarquía's La Maroma mountain on Monday morning after the group alerted emergency services at around 8.40pm on Sunday.
Once located, the man, who had disappeared a
Malaga's provincial government, the Diputación, is currently carrying out a 150,000-euro project to improve the water supply in the villages of Arenas, Sayalonga and Canillas de Albaida in the Axarquía.
The condition of the existing pipes regularly
A court in Malaga has sentenced the former mayor of an Axarquía village, José Antonio Gutiérrez (41), to nine months in prison for misappropriation of public money. Gutiérrez, who ran Sedella and pleaded guilty to the charges against him during his c
Local politicians including mayor of Torrox, Óscar Medina, along with Elías Bendodo, President of Malaga's provincial government; Diputación, officially opened a 30-metre coastal pathway over the Gúí river, connecting Torre del Mar and El Morche via
Rincón de la Victoria has also announced progress this week in its stretch of the Senda Litoral coastal pathway project. Although the area already has its own seven-kilometre-long promenade, the town council plans to construct a footbridge over the G
Around 30 cars parked on the pavements of residential areas in Vélez-Málaga and Torre del Mar, including La Mata and Viña Málaga, were issued with unexplained parking fines last week.
Mayor Antonio Ferrer, who lives in La Mata, said that he had not
A court in Malaga has ruled that Vélez-Málaga town hall must pay back 4,844 euros in Plusvalía (increased land-value tax) to a resident who sold a house in the Chilches area in March 2016.
The man originally bought the house in August 2005 and at t
Four years after it became law in Andalucía for all taxis in towns with populations greater than 10,000 to have meters, Rincón de la Victoria's 24 taxis have this week been fitted with the devices.
The delay was due to a failure to agree on tariffs
The Mediterranean archaeological park, situated next to the Cantal and La Victoria caves in Rincón de la Victoria, is set to have restoration work carried out, according to the town's mayor, Francisco Salado.
The archaeological site, which first op
Nerja town hall and the archaeologist and conservationist at Nerja Caves, Luis Efrén Fernández, have announced that the party which is traditionally held on 14 May, the night before San Isidro, has been cancelled this year.
The move comes after Fer
The premium extra virgin olive oils from Malaga, that is those made from a selection of the best olives and with very limited production, continue to achieve international success. Three olive mills in the province have won a total of six medals, fiv
Firefighters were called to tackle two car fires in Nerja on Monday. The vehicles, which were both rented, caught fire in the Los Huertos de Carabeo public car park.
It is not known why or how the fires started. Officers used synthetic foam to ext
Vélez-Málaga town hall has installed six new shower units, half of which are adapted for wheelchair users, along the beaches in both Torre del Mar and La Caleta. In addition to the showers, public toilets have also been installed, in response to resi
Although tickets for the cruise cost parents 750 euros, the trip turned out to be "a total nightmare". "We felt ripped off, this has been the worst school trip of our lives," said students from the Jorge Guillén secondary school in Torrox, one of the
The Junta de Andalucía finished cleaning up the Barranco del Viejo area just two kilometres from Nerja town centre and near the border with Frigiliana this week.
The site had accumulated 5,000 tonnes of rubbish over a 15-year period and was the su
Award-winning Irish celebrity chef, Neven Maguire, was filming in Frigiliana this week for his programme which is aired on prime time Irish television. Frigiliana's tourism councillor, Carmen Cerezo, said that the filming had been made possible throu
Three boats which have been abandoned at Caleta port in Vélez-Málaga are up for auction. The boats form part of a total of 49 that are being sold by auction across the whole of Andalucía. The 49 boats are expected to fetch between 200 euros, for the
Rincón de la Victoria's public indoor swimming pool has been hit with another setback following a decade of problems which have prevented it from opening. The Junta de Andalucía has withdrawn its decision to award a specialist company the management
Guardia Civil officers arrested a man on suspicion of sexual assault in Nerja last Friday. The 40-year-old suspect is accused of sexually assaulting a female shop assistant in an incident which allegedly took place in a clothes shop in the town centr
Nerja's deputy police commissioner, Andrés P. C., 28, was hit by a car being driven by a former Nerja councillor in the town on Tuesday.
The ex-politician, Expedito Cabra, 77, said that he had become "distracted" as his car approached a roundabout
Mayor of Rincón de la Victoria, Francisco Salado, has said that residents of Torre de Benagalbón will be able to vote for their preferred outcome to the controversial promenade development.
Local residents have been campaigning to save the area, wh
A 48-year-old Belgian man from Vélez-Málaga was found dead when his car came off the N340 road, near to the Cantarriján beach and Cerro Gordo west exit on Saturday.
Officers believe that the man had suffered a heart attack or was asleep at the whe
Mayor of Arenas, Laureano Martín, has criticised the Junta de Andalucía's decision to delay the multi-million-euro retirement home and hotel project in the village. Although the project, launched by a Belgian investor, was given the green light by th
Some species of birds have returned to the pond at Vélez-Málaga's María Zambrano park since a renovation, including improved filtration and oxygenation of the water, took place earlier this year.
Parks and gardens councillor, Marcelino Méndez-Trel
The only covered car park in Torrox Pueblo has been at the centre of complaints by residents in recent months due to its condition.
The public parking area, which opened in December 2008, has been continually vandalised and the damage has not been
Work finally started again to Nerja's sewage treatment plant on Monday. The long-awaited return of Isolux-Corsán-Corviam, who gave assurances that they would be able to complete the project, came after a series of protests in the town in January and
Las Claras, an association that is campaigning to ensure that the Las Claras convent in Vélez-Málaga is used in the most appropriate way, has asked for the building to have "university use" if and when it is bought by Vélez-Málaga town hall from Unic
Nerja's fire station was officially opened last Friday.
The service will cover Nerja, Maro and Frigiliana, with a combined population of 40,000 people.
This figure, however, can triple during the summer months.
Three firefighters are currently
Designers who dress members of royal families, football players or television presenters are often imitated by those aspiring to be like their idols and this tendency can boost the sales of small clothing outlets whose clothes are worn by celebrities
Travel website TripAdvisor has named Parador de Nerja as Spain's sixth best.
The list, which TripAdvisor explained is based on travellers' trips and comments, produced a 'top 10' list of paradors in Spain, with the number one spot going to Cangas d
More than 700 people participated in last Saturday's protest through the streets of Nerja over the ongoing delays to the town's sewage treatment plant, according to local police sources.
Around one third of those who turned out were foreign reside
A fall in visitor numbers at one of Malaga's most popular tourist attractions, the Nerja caves, has been attributed to a change in visiting rules and hours.
A 10.4 per cent drop in numbers was recorded last year, but according to manager of the cav
A residents' group supporting the redevelopment of Las Claras convent in Vélez-Málaga into a cultural centre, told the town's mayor, Antonio Moreno Ferrer, in a meeting last week, that Unicaja, the current owner of the building, should, through the b
A new notary office opened in Nerja on Monday, meaning that the town now has two such entities.
The office, which is run by Milagros Mantilla de los Ríos Vergara, is situated in Calle La Cruz.
The notary on Avenida de Pescia, run by José Alberto
A court has asked the Guardia Civil's environmental unit to investigate the source of effluent leaks around Nerja town centre this week. On Tuesday sewage was spotted spilling into the mouth of the Chíllar river, at El Chucho and El Playazo beaches t
Large towns along the coast are gaining in terms of population and those inland are progressively losing theirs. That is a simple way of summing up the way the registered population in the 103 municipalities in Malaga province has evolved in the past
While the figures released by the National Statistics Institute (INE) last week show a modest increase in the inhabitants of Marbella in the year up to 1 January 2017 (428), more recent statistics from the town hall's 'padrón' department show that th
The pilot of a light aircraft escaped uninjured when his plane crashed into a field of avocados not far from the Axarquía airfield at the Benamocarra bridge on Thursday morning.
According to a spokesperson at the airport's control tower, the pilot,
Publishing its budget for 2018 on Wednesday, the Nerja Caves foundation said that it wants to maintain high visitor numbers in 2018.
At the end of 2016, the foundation announced that more than 432,000 people had visited the site; a 5.2 per cent in
A resident of Benagalbón whose baby goat had its four hooves cut off has offered a 500-euro reward for "trustworthy information" about who was behind the crime.
Francisco Javier Jiménez explained to SUR on Monday that he had bought the goat, which
Pupils from the Trayamar secondary school in Algarrobo will have a stall at the town's Christmas market this weekend in order to raise funds as part of an Erasmus programme they have been taking part in.
While a 20,000 euro Erasmus grant funded the
Rincón de la Victoria town hall has renewed an agreement with the Spanish NGO, Organización Social de Acción Humanitaria (OSAH), or Social organisation for humanitarian action in English, which was first signed in 2011.
The new agreement will see
The town hall in Nerja says it is waiting for documentation from a local businessman to get permission to remove heavy machinery which has been disused since a quarry closed in 2000.
Around 30 items have been creating an eyesore around the Los Col
Rumours over the much talked about vote of no confidence against the Mayor of Nerja, Rosa Arrabal, continue to be just speculation after a councillor from the Ciudadanos party failed to show up to a meeting with Partido Popular (PP) politicians to si
Nerja town hall voted unanimously last week to pass a draft proposal which, if it comes into force, will seek to eradicate the use of animals by beggars in the town centre by issuing fines for anyone caught begging with their pets.
Mayor Rosa Arra
The Junta de Andalucía is to meet with irrigators in the province next week to agree a series of measures in an effort to avoid declaring a drought.
The announcement came after the Junta's environment representative, José Fiscal, admitted on Monday
The Guardia Civil are hunting two hooded men who violently attacked a 70-year-old man in his home before making off with a car, jewellery and money.
The horrific incident occurred in the rural area of La Morea, to the south of Frigiliana village an
Miguel Briones, the central government's representative in Malaga, confirmed on Wednesday that Spain's environment ministry has committed to the Nerja waste water station being ready for testing in 2018.
Briones said that an agreement had been rea
Mayor of Almáchar, José Gámez, along with Francisco Salado, Vice President of Malaga's Diputación, announced last week that the small Axarquía town of Almáchar is to be home to a museum dedicated to raisins.
The project is being funded by the two e
Spain's environment ministry announced last Friday that after almost six months of stoppage, work has started again on Nerja's waste water treatment plant.
The company overseeing the project, Isolux-Corsán-Corviam, which declared bankruptcy at the
It was in 1981 when Pedro Gómez, originally from Salamanca and his Danish wife, Dorit, visited Aldea Alta for the first time. In those days it was just one of many farmhouses that had been abandoned in the Vélez-Málaga countryside. The opportunity to
The number of fines issued for reserving space on beaches in Torrox has increased this year, despite widespread international media attention.
In 2015 Torrox town hall was the first in Spain to start fining 'beach hoggers' - people who left belongi
A tourist from Madrid has presented a complaint against the hotel Balcón de Europa to Nerja town hall.
The tourist, Alejandro de la Fuente, has reported in writing that the hotel is providing guests with sunbeds on the La Caletilla beach, to which
The storms at the beginning of this week did not bring as much rain as the Spanish met office Aemet had forecast. Nevertheless the rain that did fall, especially in the Guadalhorce valley and Antequera areas, has been welcomed by local farmers, altho
For the twelfth consecutive year, the Festival of Three Cultures in Frigiliana got under way on Thursday and will be on until Sunday. It is one of the most hotly-anticipated events in the Axarquía and all happens in the town that boasts some of the w
Once again a controversial and offensive advertisement flew over the Malaga coast last Sunday, a week after it was first spotted being flown by light aircraft from Cadiz to Almeria.
This time the people behind the publicity stunt, who are still uni
Authorities and the agricultural sector have been stepping up action in recent weeks with the impending threat of drought looming over the Axarquía.
Last week the Junta de Andalucía met with environmental councillors at the Axarquía's largest loca
Nerja's botanical garden opened recently, three years after work was completed on the site next to the Nerja cave.
Disagreements between the Junta de Andalucía and the Nerja cave foundation over the management of the gardens led to the 36-month del
Mayor of Rincón de la Victoria Francisco Salado announced last weekend that residents of Rincón, including those in Benagalbón and La Cala del Moral, will be asked their opinion on the promenade project in Torre de Benagalbón.
He said that a compa
A British woman was rescued by an off duty police officer and lifeguard in Nerja on Monday.
The incident happened at around 3.30pm, when 37-year-old National Police officer, Francisco Javier Martín, and 19-year-old Fuengirola lifeguard, Iván Mérida
Bathers on Calahonda and El Salón beaches in Nerja alerted SUR to the presence of froth caused by effluent in the sea near the shore during the course of last weekend. The dirty water caused alarm in the town at the start of the high season and despi
An 11-year-old Austrian boy is the chief suspect behind a series of fires which broke out on Tuesday evening and into the night in and around Periana.
He was caught by police and firefighters who were extinguishing the wildfires. According to mayo
More than 100 dogs were removed from land near the Granadillas stream near Rincón de la Victoria last Friday.
Seprona, the environmental protection unit of the Guardia Civil, obtained a court order from a judge in Malaga to intervene to rescue the
The new administration at Rincón de la Victoria's town hall has started a cleaning blitz following months of controversy over the management of the town's cleaning company, which led to last week's vote of no confidence.
Beaches have been the firs
An 82-year-old British tourist named Brian Hayes has been found disoriented and dehydrated on the hard shoulder of the dual carriageway near Nerja. Hayes, who was visiting the area from Manchester, went missing after he left a rented apartment in the
More than a week since SUR first published the revelations over public figures' involvement in an illegal landfill site in Nerja, the accusations and developments continue, with around 40 people under suspicion.
SUR has had access to a document tha
Almost 40 people, including Junta de Andalucía members, Nerja mayor, Rosa Arrabal, and former mayor, José Alberto Armijo, as well as other councillors and 26 companies are being investigated by Malaga's environment public prosecutor and the Guardia C
Meetings have been taking place in the last week between Nerja town hall and landowners, La Sociedad Azucarera Larios SA (Salsa), to try to reach an agreement over the controversial Maro golf course development. Councillors met with representatives f
A woman has been left with burns on her arm following an explosion at a roast chicken takeaway in Nerja.
The incident occurred at 1.30pm on Thursday after a gas cylinder in the shop exploded, causing a fire.
The shop is located on Calle Pintadas
Current mayor of Rincón de la Victoria, Encarnación Anaya (PSOE), has accused the tripartate pact of the Partido Popular (PP), Ciudadanos and the Partido Andalucista (PA) of having "spurious interests and fear of justice" after they presented a vote
A three-year-old has died after an incident at a swimming pool on Sunday in Rincón de la Victoria. The child fell into the pool and began to drown but was quickly rescued. Medical services managed to get the boy breathing again, but he remained in a
Despite prior warning and public approval, the current closure of the old bridge, one of Nerja's main access points to the west of the town, has generated a high number of complaints by residents. The bridge will be closed for approximately one month
Customers at a Frigiliana restaurant had a lucky escape on Wednesday after a 4x4 vehicle parked up in a street just off Plaza Amparo Guerrero suffered brake failure and rolled down from a height of two metres onto the restaurant's terrace.
Around 200 people took part in a demonstration against a planned bullfight in Vélez-Málaga last Saturday. Among the demonstrators were representatives from political parties, Podemos and Izquierda Unida, as well as animal rights organisations. The me
The iconic Iberostar Málaga-Playa hotel in Torrox Costa officially reopened with an inauguration event last Saturday, having undergone a major makeover during the low season.
Both the interior and exterior of the hotel have been modernised. In addi
Their story has gone all around the globe and since giving a press conference at Torrox town hall a week ago, Jimena Rico and Shaza Ismail have been inundated with requests for interviews and even offers to have their story made into a book or a film
The new doctors' surgery in Torre de Benagalbón, which belongs to Rincón de la Victoria, will start operating from Monday 8 May, according to the government's equality, social services and health representatives, José Luis Ruiz Espejo and Ana Isabel
Alicia Martín Cruz and two of her three dogs, eight-year-old Lima and nine-year-old India, help children and adults in the Axarquía region to overcome difficulties with reading, writing, maths and general emotional development.
Schools and centres
A young actor from Benajarafe has secured the leading role in Billy Elliot the musical, which will premiere in Madrid in October.
Eleven-year-old Cristian López Zamanillo, who lives with his mum, 34-year-old Soraya Zamanillo and grandmother, Argand
Nerja looks set to be the next town in the Axarquía to impose fines for 'beach hoggers,' according to a consultation document published by the town hall.
The proposal, which forms part of a list of 35 suggestions currently out to consultation, woul
Thieves stole 3,000 euros in cash and 21,000 euros of jewellery from two elderly foreign residents' houses in Nerja town centre earlier this week, disguising themselves as inspectors from the company Sevillana-Endesa. According to police sources, the
An estimated 30,000 residents in Vélez-Málaga are experiencing problems with boilers, dishwashers and washing machines, damage amounting to 150,000 euros, due to abnormally high levels of lime scale in their tap water.
The town hall and water compa
Three out of the four biggest Axarquía town halls have failed to sign off this year's budgets, despite being at the end of the first quarter.
Councillors at Nerja, Torrox and Rincón de la Victoria town halls have been unable to reach agreements ove
The 18th Nerja Residents' Day took place on Plaza de España on Sunday. Thirty-four stalls represented the large number of associations, companies and other organisations that are formed by, or work with, foreigners in the town. There were music and d
Torrox town hall has announced plans to restore the old sugar cane factory situated in Torrox Costa.
Mayor of Torrox, Óscar Medina, revealed last Friday that the town hall has approached Spain's central government for financial support for the proj
Spain's home office minister, Juan Ignacio Zoido, used the occasion of laying the first stone for Torre del Mar's new National Police headquarters to condemn terrorism and make reference to Basque terrorist group ETA's plan to hand in all its remaini
Residents of the town of Torre de Benalgabón have gathered over 2,000 signatures via change.org in an attempt to stop a project to construct a promenade on sand dunes.
Opposers of the plan who have formed an association of around 800 residents, 'Pl
Work is under way to stabilise the walkway and cliffs between the Mirador del Bendito next to Carabeíllo and Burriana beaches in Nerja. The walkway was closed 15 years ago due to concerns over safety and falling rocks from the cliffs. It is hoped tha
A 44-year-old driver damaged bollards and parked cars after invading a pedestrianised street in the Torre del Mar area in the early hours of Saturday morning.
The woman, who had a alcohol level of more than 0.4 milligrams per litre of air, drove a
Rincón de la Victoria town hall has announced a six-month extension to its programme to collect DNA from residents' dogs. The announcement comes after only 71 out of an estimated 9,500 dogs' DNA have been registered since the start of the scheme. Pet
A 20cm by 20cm hole in one of the two pipes that takes raw sewage into the sea off Nerja's coast was spotted and subsequently filmed by residents in the town last Thursday. The hole, 400 metres from the seashore between the El Chucho and Torrecilla b
Two young university graduates from Vélez-Málaga have set up their own business selling Holy Week souvenirs. Daniel Escalona, 25, who has a degree in Marketing and his friend, Francisco Gutiérrez, 23, a Business Management and Administration graduate
Anybody who has walked down Calle Carabeo in Nerja this week will probably have seen the words 'sé fuerte Luis,' (be strong Luis), painted in large red letters over an existing piece of artwork depicting some of Spain's most illustrious writer and ar
The Junta de Andalucía has this week announced its intention to open Nerja's botanic garden this year, three years after work was finished on the site next to the Nerja caves.
José Luis Ruiz Espejo, Malaga's representative from the Junta, told SUR
A new case of animal abuse reached the courts this week; this time a dog in Torre del Mar which was being kept tied up in squalid conditions in Torre del Mar.
National police officers found the dog, which had neither food nor water at the time, in
The El Cueva de Nerja-UMA Under-15 side won the bronze medal in the indoor Copa de España competition in Zaragoza.
The male athletes from Nerja scored 59 points while their female teammates won 63 points in sprint, jumping, javelin and long-distanc
A new dog park has opened in Rincón de la Victoria. The new space measures 600 square metres, includes a fountain and seating area and is situated in the Los Almendros park in the town centre. Councillor Ezequiel Carnero said last week that "there is
A vote of no confidence has been motioned against the current mayor of Frigiliana, José Antonio González and his party, the Partido Popular (PP).
Councillors from the socialist PSOE and Andalusian party, Partido Andalucista (PA), presented the moti
Following the success of a party last Sunday to raise funds for Pablo, a seven-year-old boy from La Cala del Moral who has cancer, further events are being organised for this weekend. The party, which took place on Plaza Gloria Fuertes, raised 20,000
A team of scientists investigating the age of the drawings in the Nerja caves has dated them back 20,000 years, instead of the previously believed 43,500 to 40,000 years.
The team, which has been led by professor José Luis Sanchidrán, from the Univ
The former Partido Popular (PP) administration at Nerja town hall, led by ex-mayor José Alberto Armijo, has expressed its "surprise" over investigations into mismanagement when the party was in power in the town. The investigations, which are being l
Following a seven-month delay, work has started again on Nerja's waste water treatment station. As of last Thursday the roads around Burriana beach, to the east of the town, have been closed to traffic, in order to complete work to the main pumping s
Registration is open for a new film festival in Vélez-Málaga, which will show short films made by people using their smartphones. The festival, called 'Corto&cambio' (short & change) aims to show life in Malaga province through the eyes of its reside
A new drama school in Rincón de la Victoria has taken its first pupils since the project was set up after residents were invited to vote on how 500,000 euros should be spent in the town. The school is based in the Sala de Las Musas in La Cala del Mor
Frigiliana council has announced that it is to charge couples 50 euros for a civil wedding. Considered one of Spain's most beautiful villages, Frigiliana has seen a growth in 'wedding tourism' recently and until now civil weddings have been free, exc
A man and a woman died after a microlight aircraft crashed near the La Axarquía aerodrome on Thursday last week.
The 47-year-old woman, who was flying the aircraft as part of a training circuit, and an unidentified man, were killed after the aircra
An 81-year-old Danish man died on Sunday after falling from a cliff in a rocky area of Las Alberquillas beach in the Maro-Cerro Gordo nature reserve.
The emergency services tried to revive the man, who was taking a walk with his wife, but he had a
Last weekend Nerja celebrated San Antón with traditional bonfires in the streets. Locals and visitors fought off the cold around the bonfires and barbecues with the help of sweet muscat wine. According to the tradition the fires are lit in the street
The group who discovered of the Nerja caves met at the historical site for the 58th annual reunion on 12 January. Francisco Navas, José Torres and brothers Miguel and Manuel Muñoz were accompanied by their wives, along with the widow and son of the f
Nerja-based NGO Nerja Solidaria de Alimentos reported on Tuesday the theft of 300 euros and a laptop from its headquarters in Plaza de la Ermita in the town. According to the NGO's president, Miguel Benítez, the robbery took place on Monday and there
The continuing saga of Nerja's unfinished water treatment plant has been at the centre of the town hall's agenda this week as an investigation into the delays to the work has been opened. In the same week, Spain's central government has said that wor
AIDS is one of the greatest pandemics in the world. It was only discovered 35 years ago in Los Angeles, but now around 38 million people have been infected by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), and approximately half of them are unaware of the f
How much does a cave cost when it is a tourist attraction and has been declared of special cultural interest?
That's the question that a panel of three experts has just answered. In their opinion the Cueva del Tesoro caves, which includes prehistor