Cuevas del Becerro, near Ronda, is the first municipality in Andalucía where the entire local population is to be tested for Covid-19.
The decision was made following the high infection rate detected after mass testing was carried out on Friday.
Of the 182 residents who underwent PCR tests, 130 (71.4%) were positive.
The town, located in the province of Malaga between the Guadalteba and Serranía de Ronda areas, has a registered population of 1,589 inhabitants and from Monday 1,400 tests are expected to be carried out in the Andalusian health service's mobile unit, one of eight vehicles recently acquired by the Junta for this purpose.
There was nervous expectation among the local people, who had been called to the mobile unit or the local doctors' surgery on Monday morning.
After the results of the tests on Friday were revealed the local residents were urged by their local town hall and the Junta de Andalucía not to leave their homes if except for essential outings.
Special controls have been set up at the access roads to the village, while volunteers from the Civil Protection organisation have been shopping for thre numerous residents self-isolating in their homes after testing positive.